Search for: [Abstract = "In 1999, as a result of education system reform, a new type of lower secondary school, called “gymnasium”, was introduced in Poland. The main objective of introduction of gymnasium was to equalize education opportunities to rural youth, improve the level of education and extend general education by one year. The reformers foresaw gymnasiums as an independent school, located in new, well\-equipped buildings, or as schools functioning alongside existing secondary schools. After 16 years of operation, four institutional models of gymnasium evolved\: independent gymnasium, gymnasium together with a primary school with either the same or more narrow catchment area, and gymnasium together with upper secondary school. The article investigates differences in the organizational characteristics for each model of gymnasium, educational outcomes from different types of school, and their spatial distribution."]

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