The paper reports a study addressing influence of learning strategies on academic achievement in mathe matics, reading and science internationally, with comparisons between Poland’s neighbouring countries. Data from the PISA 2009 study was used to build multiple multilevel hierarchical regression models, with control variables for student, school and at country level. Based on the model developed by Chiu, Chow and McBride-Chang (2007), prior achievement, student family background, school environmental characteristics and national economic and cultural contexts were controlled for, allowing assessment of the effects of learning strategies. Higher dependency on memorisation was associated with lower scores in all domains, elaboration was a negative predictor of reading and positive of mathematics and science, while use of metacognitive strategies was associated with higher scores in all domains investigated. The effect of metacognitive strategies was particularly strong in Poland, as compared with neighbouring countries.